Mapa De Quilombos
Quilombos were formed throughout the period of slavery in Brazil and some were even formed after the abolishment of slavery. Theses communities were populated by escaped slaves in order to avoid recaptures and create a community of freedom. The quilombos formed after the abolishment of slavery were for the purpose of having a community where the Afro-Brazilian man could be truly free and not worry about the disapproval of his culture.
Today many of these quilombos still exist throughout Brazil, due to the effort put forth by the Movimento Quilombola and the Movimento Negro. As mentioned in my pervious post, the Movimento Quilombola works to for the preservation and protection of communities that were once quilombos. The movement has been successful in establishing government reform that recognizes communities who claim to have quilombo ancestry. It has also been successful in creating the Fundação Cultural de Palmares, which aids in the effort of quilombola recognition.
Currently the Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária or INCRA, investigates any community that are classified as quilombolas by the Fundacão Cultural de Palmares. After there is self declaration by the quilombola, there is an anthropologic and ancestral investigation of the community to verify that it truly is a descendent of a quilombo community. The following findings are reviewed by INCRA, if everything is verified the president of INCRA will recognize the community as a quilombo and establish its limits. If the land that is classified as quilombo is on private property the government will seize the land and grant it to the descendants of that specific quilombo. The process of recognition is finalized by the giving of the land title to the community the only conditions are that the land may never be sold, subdivided, leased, or pawned.
While this may seem like a simple process it is far from it. In most cases the quilombolas will only be recognized by the Fundação Palmares, which does not give these communities the title to their land. For my maps, I wanted to give a visual representation of the amount of quilombolas that can be found in various states. The majority of the quilombolas in the maps below do not have a title to the land, so they are not guaranteed protection if the current owner of the land wants to remove them.
The maps below are from the states of Paraiba and Bahia in Brazil. For the map of Paraiba, it shows all of the recognized quilombolas in the state. By analyzing the map we can see that they are spread out all over the state. This map was being used during a conference in the state of Paraiba where they were discussing the rights of quilombola communities. A very important thing to note is that out of the 39 communities listed in this map, only 37 have been verified by the Fundação Palmares and none of these communities have received the title to their land. Thus showing how difficult it is to actually obtain the title of the land once they are recognized as a quilombola.
The map of Bahia shows the amount of quilombolas per county. Bahia has over 600 recognized quilombolas throughout the state but only 16 of those have been given the title to their land. Bahia is the state with the most quilombolas, so I would have expected a larger amount of these communities to be titled. The process to get the title is a long and hard battle, in most cases it will take years before these communities see the title to their land.
Overall there have been 2471 quilombolas recognized by the Fundação Palmares but only 190 of those communities have been given the title to their land. There is still a lot of progress to be made. The right to land is one of the most valuable rights for a human, so for these communities to receive their land it means that they are being recognized as citizens of Brazil, and there is a demonstration of equality in a country that has not given them their basic rights.