Narrative Studies


Auerbach, Eric. Mimesis. 1953. New Introduction by Edward Said. Princeton UP, 2013.

Booth, Wayne. The Rhetoric of Fiction. University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Lukács, Georg. The Historical Novel. Trans. Hannah and Stanley Mitchell. U of Nebraska P, 1963.

Iser, Wolfgang.  “The Reading Process: A Phenomenological Approach.” New Literary History, vol. 3, no. 2, 1972, pp. 279-299.

Iser, Wolfgang. The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett. Johns Hopkins UP, 1974.

Cohn, Dorrit. Transparent Minds: Narrative Modes for Presenting Consciousness in Fiction. Princeton UP, 1978.

Barthes, Roland, and Richard (translator) Howard. “The Reality Effect.” 1982. The Novel: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory, 1900-2000, edited by Dorothy J. Hale, Blackwell, 2006, pp. 229–34.


Belsey, Catherine. Critical Practice. Methuen, 1980.

Jameson, Frederic. The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act. Cornell UP, 1981.

Phelan, James. Narrative as Rhetoric: Techniques, Audiences, Ethics, Ideology. Ohio State UP, 1996.

Prince, Gerald. A Dictionary of Narratology. Nebraska UP, 1987.

Winnett, Susan. “Coming Unstrung: Women, Men, Narrative, and Principles of Pleasure.” PMLA, vol. 105, no. 3, May 1990, pp. 505–18.

2000 to the present

Moretti, Franco. Graphs, Maps, Trees: Abstract Models for Literary History. Verso, 2007.

Smajić, Srdjan. “Supernatural Realism.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction, vol. 42, no. 1, 2009, pp. 1–22.

Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory: a very short introduction. Oxford UP, 2011.

McHale, Brian, “Transparent Minds Revisited.” Narrative, vol. 20, no. 1, January 2012, pp. 115-124.

Moretti, Franco. Distant Reading. Verso, 2013.

Levine, Caroline. Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network. Princeton UP, 2017.

Works on the Novel


Fleishman, Avrom. The Historical Novel: Walter Scott to Virginia Woolf. Johns Hopkins, 1971.

Gilbert, Sandra M., and Gubar, Susan, The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. Yale University Press, 1979.

Kelly, Gary. The English Jacobin Novel. Clarendon, 1976.

Knoepflmacher, U. C. Laughter and Despair: Readings in Ten Novels of the Victorian Era. U of California P, 1971.

Leavis, F. R. The Great Tradition: George Eliot, Henry James, Joseph Conrad. London: Penguin, 1948.

Levine, George. The Realistic Imagination: English Fiction from Frankenstein to Lady Chatterley. University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Miller, J. Hillis. The Form of Victorian Fiction: Thackeray, Dickens, Trollope, George Eliot, Meredith, and Hardy. U of Notre Dame P, 1968.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. Vintage, 1978.

Showalter, Elaine. A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing. Princeton University Press, 1977.

Sutherland, John, Victorian Novelists and Publishers. Athlone Press, 1976.

Tillotson, Kathleen. Novels of the Eighteen-Forties. Oxford: Clarendon, 1954.

Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. U of California P, 1957.


Auerbach, Nina. Romantic Imprisonment: Women and Other Glorified Outcasts. Columbia UP, 1985.

Brooks, Peter. Reading for the Plot: Design and Intention in Narrative. Harvard UP, 1984.

Butler, Marilyn Butler, Romantics, Rebels, and Reactionaries: English Literature and its Backgrounds, 1760-1830. Oxford UP, 1981.

Cottom, Daniel. Civilized imagination: a study of Ann Radcliffe, Jane Austen, and Sir Walter Scott. Cambridge UP, 1985.

Gallagher, Catherine. The Industrial Reformation of English Fiction: Social Discourse and Narrative Form, University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Garrett, Peter K. The Victorian Multiplot Novel: Studies in Dialogical Form. Yale UP, 1980.

Kelly, Gary Kelly. English Fiction of the Romantic Period, 1789-1830. Longman, 1989.

Kucich, John. Repression in Victorian Fiction: Charlotte Brontë, George Eliot, and Charles Dickens. U of California P, 1987.

Levine, George. The Realistic Imagination: English Fiction from Frankenstein to Lady Chatterley. U of Chicago P, 1981.

Miller, D. A. Narrative and its Discontents: Problems of Closure in the Traditional Novel. Princeton UP, 1981.

—. The Novel and the Police. U of California P, 1988.

Moretti, Franco. The Way of the World: The Bildungsroman in European Culture. Verso, 1987.

Polhemus, Robert M. Comic Faith: The Great Tradition from Austen to Joyce. U of Chicago P, 1980.

Poovey, Mary. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: ideology as style in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley, and Jane Austen. U Chicago P, 1984.

—. Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England. U Chicago P, 1988.

Qualls, Barry V., The Secular Pilgrims of Victorian Fiction. Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Said, Edward. The World, the Text, and the Critic. Harvard UP, 1983.

Sedgwick, Eve. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. Columbia UP, 1985.

Siskin, Clifford Siskin, The Historicity of Romantic Discourse. Oxford UP, 1988.

Spencer, Jane. The Rise of the Woman Novelist: from Aphra Behn to Jane Austen. Blackwell, 1986.

Spender, Dale.  Mothers of the novel: 100 good women writers before Jane Austen.  London: New York: Pandora, 1986.


Behrendt, Stephen. “Questioning the Romantic Novel.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 26, no. 2, Summer 1994, pp. 5-25.

Case, Alison. Plotting Women: Gender and Narration in the Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century British Novel. UP Virginia, 1999.

Duncan, Ian. Modern Romance and the Transformations of the Novel: The Gothic, Scott, Dickens. Cambridge UP, 1992.

Ellis, Lorna. Appearing to Diminish: Female Development and the British Bildungsroman, 1750–1850. Associated UP, 1999.

Hoeveler, Diane Long. Gothic Feminism: The Professionalization Of Gender From Charlotte Smith To the Brontës. Penn State P, 1998.

Jaffe, Audrey, Vanishing Points: Dickens, Narrative, and the Subject of Omniscience. University of California Press, 1991.

Litvak, Joseph. Caught in the Act: Theatricality in the Nineteenth-Century Novel. University of California Press, 1992.

—. Strange Gourmets: Sophistication, Theory, and the Novel. Duke University Press, 1997.

Mellor, Anne. Romanticism and Feminism. Indiana UP, 1998.

—. Romanticism and Gender. Routledge, 1993.

Meyer, Susan. Imperialism at Home: Race and Victorian Women’s Fiction. Cornell UP, 1996.

Moretti, Franco. Atlas of the European Novel, 1800-1900. Verso, 1998.

Pratt, Mary Louise. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. Routledge, 1992.

Rajan, Tilottoma Rajan. The Supplement of Reading: figures of understanding in romantic theory and practice. Cornell UP, 1990.

Said, Edward. Culture and Imperialism. Vintage, 1993.

Shaw, Harry E. Narrating Reality: Austen, Scott, Eliot. Cornell UP, 1999.

Siskin, Clifford. The Work of Writing: Literature and Social Change in Britain, 1700-1830. Johns Hopkins UP, 1998.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present. Harvard UP, 1999.

Ty, Eleanor. Unsex’d revolutionaries: five women novelists of the 1790s. U Toronto P, 1993.

Warhol, Robyn R. Gendered Interventions: Narrative Discourse in the Victorian Novel. Rutgers UP, 1992.


Anderson, Amanda. The Powers of Distance: Cosmopolitanism and the Cultivation of Detachment. Princeton UP, 2001.

Buzard, James. Disorienting Fiction: The Autoethnographic Work of Nineteenth-Century British Novels. Princeton UP, 2005.

Carens, Timothy. Outlandish English Subjects in the Victorian Domestic Novel. Palgrave, 2005.

Claybaugh, Amanda. The Novel of Purpose: Literature and Social Reform in the Anglo-American World. Cornell UP, 2007.

Dames, Nicholas. Amnesiac Selves: Nostalgia, Forgetting, and British Fiction, 1810–1870. Oxford UP, 2001.

—. The Physiology of the Novel: Reading, Neural Science, and the Form of Victorian Fiction. Oxford UP, 2007.

Dekker, George G. The Fictions of Romantic Tourism: Radcliffe, Scott, and Mary Shelley. Stanford UP, 2005.

Freedgood, Elaine. The Ideas in Things: Fugitive Meaning in the Victorian Novel. University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Gallagher, Catherine. The Body Economic: Life, Death, and Sensation in Political Economy and the Victorian Novel. Princeton UP, 2006.

Gamer, Michael. Romanticism and the Gothic: Genre, Reception, and Canon Formation. Cambridge UP, 2000.

Gilbert, PamelaCholera and Nation: Doctoring the Social Body in Victorian EnglandState U of New York P2008.

Goodlad, Lauren. Victorian Literature and the Victorian State: Character and Governance in a Liberal Society. Johns Hopkins UP, 2003.

Greenfield, Susan C. Mothering daughters: novels and the politics of family romance: Frances Burney to Jane Austen. Wayne State Press, 2002.

Grossman, Jonathan. The Art of Alibi: English Law Courts and the Novel. Johns Hopkins UP, 2002.

Heydt-Stevenson, Jillian and Charlotte Sussman, Recognizing the romantic novel: new histories of British fiction. Liverpool UP, 2008.

Jarrells, Anthony. “Bloodless Revolution and the Form of the Novel.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction, vol. 37, no. 1–2, 2003, pp. 24–44.

Levine, Caroline. The Serious Pleasures of Suspense: Victorian Realism and Narrative Doubt. U Virginia P, 2003.

Mellor, Anne. Mothers of the Nation. Indiana UP, 2002.

Moretti, Franco, and Albert Sbragia. The Way of the World : The Bildungsroman in European Culture. London ; New York : Verso, 2000.

Plotz, John. Portable Property: Victorian Culture on the Move. Princeton UP, 2008.

Price, Leah. The Anthology and the Rise of the Novel: From Richardson to George Eliot. Cambridge UP, 2000.

Russell, Gillian and Clara Tuite, eds. Romantic sociability: social networks and literary culture in Britain, 1770-1840. Cambridge UP, 2002.

St. Clair, William. The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period. Cambridge UP, 2004.

Sussman, Charlotte. Consuming Anxieties: Consumer Protest, Gender and Slavery, 1713-1833. Stanford UP, 2000.

Woloch, Alex. The One vs. the many: minor characters and the space of the protagonist in the novel. Princeton UP, 2004.

2009 to the present

Beer, John. Romanticism, Revolution, and Language: the fate of the word from Samuel Johnson to George Eliot. Cambridge UP, 2009.

Maxwell, Richard. The Historical Novel in Europe, 1650-1950. Cambridge UP, 2009.

Michie, Elsie B. “Rich Woman, Poor Woman: Toward an Anthropology of the Nineteenth-Century Marriage Plot.” PMLA, vol. 124, no. 2, 2009, pp. 421-436. [Norman]

Morgenstern, Karl. “On the Nature of the Bildungsroman.” Translated by Tobias Boes, PMLA, vol. 124, no. 2, 2009, pp. 647-659. [Norman]

Stewart, Garrett. Novel Violence: A Narratography of Victorian Fiction. U of Chicago P, 2009.

Wallace, Miriam L. Revolutionary Subjects in the English “Jacobin” Novel, 1790-1805. Cranbury, NJ : Bucknell University Press, 2009.


Ablow, Rachel. “Introduction: The Feeling of Reading.” The Feeling of Reading: Affective Experience and Victorian Literature, edited by Rachel Ablow, U of Michigan P, 2010.

Klein, Richard. “The Future of Literary Criticism” PMLA, vol. 125, no. 4, 2010, pp. 920-923. [Norman]

Macpherson, Sandra. Harm ‘s Way: Tragic Responsibility and the Novel Form. Johns Hopkins UP, 2010.

McGill, Meredith, and Andrew Parker. “The Future of the Literary Past.” PMLA, vol. 125, no. 4, 2010, pp. 959-967. [Norman]

Pinch, Adela. Thinking About Other People in Nineteenth-Century British Writing. Cambridge UP, 2010.


Henson, Eithne. Landscape and Gender in the Novels of Charlotte Brontë, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy: The Body of Nature. Routledge, 2011.


Boehm, Katharina, ed. Bodies and Things in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture. Palgrave, 2012.

Greiner, Rae. Sympathetic Realism in Nineteenth-Century British Fiction. Johns Hopkins Press, 2012.

Krunick, David. Empty Houses: Theatrical Failure and the Novel. Princeton University Press, 2012.

Price, Leah. How to Do Things with Books in Victorian Britain. Princeton UP, 2012.

Zemka, Sue. Time and the Moment in Victorian Literature and Society. Cambridge UP, 2012.


Ferris, Ina. “‘Before Our Eyes’: Romantic Historical Fiction and the Apparitions of Reading.” Representations, vol. 121, 2013, pp. 60–84.

Gilmore, Dehn. The Victorian Novel and the Space of Art: Fictional Form on Display. Cambridge UP, 2013. [Eberle; Stetcher]

Nussbaum, Martha C., and Alison L. Lacroix, eds. Subversion and Sympathy: Gender, Law and the British Novel. Oxford UP, 2013. [Beckwith notes Jane Austen]


Cox, Jeffrey N. Romanticism in the shadow of war: literary culture in the Napoleonic war years. Cambridge UP, 2014.

Gottlieb, Evan. Romantic Globalism: British Literature and Modern World Order, 1750-1830. Ohio State UP, 2014.

Levy, Michelle. “Do Women Have a Book History?” Studies in Romanticism, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2014, pp. 296-317. [Phillips]

Mckee, Patricia. Reading Constellations: Urban Modernity in Victorian Fiction. Oxford UP, 2014. [Beckwith]


Bonaparte, Felicia. The Poetics of Poesis: The Making of Nineteenth-Century English Fiction. University of Virginia Press, 2015. [Beckwith]

Boxall, Peter. The Value of the Novel. Cambridge UP, 2015. [Beckwith notes chapters on Eliot and Dickens]

Cohn, Elisha. Still Life: Suspended Development in the Victorian Novel. Oxford UP, 2015.

Dau, Duc, and Shale Preston, eds. Queer Victorian Families: Curious Relations in Literature. Routledge, 2015. [Beckwith note: Bleak House, Craik, and Austen]

Delafield, Catherine. Serialization and the Novel in Mid-Victorian Magazines. Ashgate, 2015.

Fleming, Patrick C. The Legacy of the Moral Tale: Children’s Literature and the English Novel, 1744-1859. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2016. [Stecher]

Levine, Caroline. Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network. Princeton UP, 2015.

Lutz, Deborah. Relics of Death in Victorian Literature and Culture. Cambridge UP, 2015.

McAleavey, Maia. The Bigamy Plot: Sensation and Convention in the Victorian Novel. Cambridge UP, 2015.

Rezek, Jospeh. London and the Making of Provincial Literature: Aesthetics and the Transatlantic Book Trade, 1800-1850. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015. [Beckwith notes Walter Scott]


Bartlett, Jami. Object Lessons: the novel as a theory of reference. University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Damkjær, Maria. Time, Domesticity and Print Culture in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. [Beckwith notes work with Bleak House, North and South, as well as Eliot, Craik, and Bronte]

Dawson, Paul. “From Digressions to Intrusions: Authorial Commentary in the Novel.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 48 no. 2, 2016, pp. 145-167. [Beckwith]

Fleming, Patrick C. The Legacy of the Moral Tale: Children’s Literature and the English Novel, 1744-1859. University of Tennessee Press, 2016. [Stecher]

Ittensohn, Mark. “‘A Story Telling and a Story Reading Age’: Textuality and Sociability in the Romantic Frame Tale.” Studies in Romanticism, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2016, pp. 393-415. [Phillips]

Jarvis, Claire. Exquisite Masochism: Marriage, Sex, and the Novel Form. Johns Hopkins UP, 2016. [Beckwith]

Livesey, Ruth. Writing the Stage Coach Nation: Locality on the Move in Nineteenth-Century British Literature. University of Michigan Press, 2016. [Beckwith notes: Jane Eyre, Walter Scott]

Marsh, Kelly A. The Submerged Plot and the Mother’s Pleasure: from Jane Austen to Arundhati Roy. The Ohio State UP, 2016. [Beckwith notes Jane Eyre and Bleak House]

Murphy, Patricia. The New Woman Gothic: Reconfigurations of Distress. University of Missouri Press, 2016. [Beckwith]

Schaffer, Talia. Romance’s Rival: Familiar Marriage in Victorian Fiction. Oxford UP, 2016. [Eberle; Beckwith notes Jane Eyre, Austen, and Eliot; also noted by Stecher]

Wasser, Audrey. The Work of Difference : Modernism, Romanticism, and the Production of Literary Form. New York : Fordham University Press, 2016.

Wright, Erika. Reading for Health: Medical Narratives and the Nineteenth-Century Novel. Ohio UP, 2016. [Beckwith notes Jane Eyre, Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Elizabeth Gaskell]


Atkinson, Juliette. French Novels and the Victorians. London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2017.

Armstrong, Nancy, and Warren Montag. “Are Novels Literature?” Novel, vol. 50, no. 3, 2017, pp. 338-35. [Lambert]

Cohen, Monica F. Pirating Fictions: Ownership and Creativity in Nineteenth-Century Popular Culture. University of Virginia Press, 2017. [Beckwith notes chapters on Scott and Dickens]

Duncan, Ian. “History and the Novel after Lukács.” Novel, vol. 50, no. 3, 2017, 388-396. [Lambert]

Haugtvedt, Erica. “The Victorian Serial Novel and Transfictional Character.” Victorian Studies, vol. 59, no. 3, 2017, pp. 399-408. JSTOR, [Going]

May, Leila Silvana. Secrecy and Disclosure in Victorian Fiction. Routledge, 2017. [Beckwith notes Vanity Fair]

Rosenthal, Jesse. Good Form: The Ethical Experience of the Victorian Novel. Princeton UP, 2017. [Beckwith notes Daniel Deronda; also cited by Stecher]


Booker, Kristina. Menials: Domestic Service and the Cultural Transformation of British Society, 1650–1850. Bucknell UP, 2018. [Beckwith notes chapters on Bleak House and Vanity Fair]

Steinlight, Emily. Populating the Novel: Literary Form and the Politics of Surplus Life. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2018. [Stecher]

Jane Austen

Barchas, Janine, and Picherit, Elizabeth. “Speculations on Spectacles: Jane Austen’s Eyeglasses, Mrs. Bates’s Spectacles, and John Saunders in Emma.” Modern Philology: Critical and Historical Studies in Literature, Medieval Through Contemporary, vol. 115, no. 1, Aug. 2017, pp. 131–143.

Brown, Marshall. “Emma’s Depression.” Studies in Romanticism, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2014, pp. 3-29. JSTOR, [Phillips]

Butler, Marilyn. Jane Austen and the War of Ideas. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1975.

Deresiewicz, William. Jane Austen and the Romantic Poets. New York : Columbia University Press, 2004.

Doody, Margaret. Jane Austen’s Names: Riddles, Persons, Places. University of Chicago Press, 2015. [Beckwith]

Duckworth, Alistair M. The Improvement of the Estate; a Study of Jane Austen’s Novels. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press 1971.

Ferguson, Frances. “Jane Austen, Emma, and the Impact of Form.” MLQ, vol. 61, no. 1, 2000, pp. 157-80.

Finch, Casey and Peter Bowen, “‘The Tittle-Tattle of Highbury’: Gossip and Free Indirect Style in Emma,” Representations vol. 31, Summer 1990, pp. 1-18.

Fletcher, Loraine. “Emma: the shadow novelist.” Critical Survey vol. 4, no. 1, 1992, pp. 36-44.

Ford, Susan Allen. “Learning Romance from Scott and Byron: Jane Austen’s Natural Sequel,” Persuasions: The Jane Austen Journal, vol. 26, 2004, pp. 72-88.

Galperin, William H. The Historical Austen. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.

Garofalo, Daniela. “Doating on Faults in Jane Austen’s Emma.” European Romantic Review,  vol. 28, no. 2, 2017, pp. 227-240. [Chang]

Goss, Erin M. “Homespun Gossip: Jane West, Jane Austen, and the Task of Literary Criticism.” Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation, vol. 56, no. 2, 2015, pp. 165–177.

Johnson, Claudia L. Jane Austen : Women, Politics, and the Novel. University of Chicago Press, 1988.

—, Equivocal beings: politics, gender and sentimentality in the 1790s: Wollstonecraft, Radcliffe, Burney, Austen. University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Klemann, Heather M. “Ethos in Jane Austen’s ‘Emma.’ Studies in Romanticism, vol. 51, no. 4, 2012, pp. 503-532.

Korba, Susan. “‘Improper and Dangerous Distinctions: Female Relationships and Erotic Domination in Emma.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 29, no. 2, 1997, pp. 139-163.

Lanser, Susan. “Aging with Austen.” PMLA, vol. 133, no. 3, 2018, pp. 654-660. [Norman]

—. The Sexuality of History: Modernity and the Sapphic, 1565-1830. U Chicago Press, 2014.

Malone, Meaghan. “Jane Austen’s Balls: Emma’s Dance of Masculinity” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 70, no. 4, March 2016, pp. 427-447.

Mandal, Anthony. Jane Austen and the popular novel: the determined author. Palgrave, 2007.

Marie, Beatrice. “Emma and the Democracy of Desire.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-13.

Miller, Sydney. “How Not to Improve the Estate: Lopping & Cropping Jane Austen.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 49 no. 4, 2017, pp. 431-452.

Moore, Lisa. Dangerous Intimacies: Towards a Sapphic History of the British Novel. Duke UP, 1997.

Nokes, David. Jane Austen: A Life. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997.

Oberman, Rachel Provenzano. “Fused Voices: Narrated Monologue in Jane Austen’s Emma.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 64, no. 1, June 2009, pp. 1–15.

Park, You-me and Rajeswari Sunder Rajan, Austen in the world: postcolonial mappings. Routledge, 2000.

Rohrbach, Emily. “‘Without You, I Am Nothing’: On the Counterfactual Imagination in Emma.” Textual Practice, vol. 32, no. 3–4, Apr. 2018, pp. 471–488.

Russell, Gillian. “‘The Place Is Not Free to You’: The Georgian Assembly Room and the Ends of Sociability.”Sociable Places: Locating Culture in Romantic-Period Britain, edited by Kevin Gilmartin, Cambridge UP, 2017, pp. 143–162.

Tomalin, Claire Tomalin, Jane Austen: A Life. 1997)

Tuite, Clara Tuite, Romantic Austen: sexual politics and the literary canon. Cambridge UP, 2002.

White, Gabrielle D. V. Jane Austen in the context of abolition: a fling at the slave trade. Palgrave, 2006.

The Brontes

Alexander, Christine, and Margaret Smith. The Oxford Companion to the Brontës. Oxford U P, 2003.

Allott, Miria M., ed. The Brontës: The Critical Heritage. Routledge, 1974.

Barker, Juliet. The Brontës. St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Eagleton, Terry. Myths of Power: A Marxist Study of the Brontës. Macmillan, 1975.

Hoeveler, Diane Long, and Deborah Denenholz Morse. A Companion to the Brontës. Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.

Ingham, Patricia. The Brontës. Oxford UP, 2006.

Lutz, Deborah. The Bronte Cabinet: three lives in nine objects. Norton, 2015.

Miller, Lucasta. The Brontë Myth. Knopf, 2003.

Stewart, Garrett. “On the Brontesque.” Victorian Review, vol. 42, no. 2, Fall 2016, pp. 234-241.

Anne Bronte

Campbell, Jessica. “Anne Brontë’s Realist ‘Bluebeard.’” Bronte Studies, vol. 41, no. 4, Nov. 2016, pp. 350–360.

Carnell, Rachel K. “Feminism and the Public Sphere in Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 53, no. 1, June 1998, pp. 1–24.

Chitham, Edward. A Life of Anne Brontë. Blackwell, 1991.

Claybaugh, Amanda. “Everyday Life in Anne Brontë.” Narrative Middles: Navigating the Nineteenth-Century British Novel, edited by Caroline Levine and Mario Ortiz-Robles, Ohio State UP, 2011, pp. 109–27.

Cocks, Neil Hayward. “The Child and the Letter: Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall.” Textual Practice, vol. 27, no. 7, Dec. 2013, pp. 1125–1147.

Cox, Kimberly. “A Touch of the Hand: Manual Intercourse in Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall,” Nineteenth-Century Literature 72, no. 2, September 2017, pp. 161-191. [Stecher]

Diederich, Nicole A. The Art of Comparison: Remarriage in Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association, vol. 57, no. 2, 2016, pp. 25-41.

Freedgood, Elaine. “Souvenirs of Sadism: Mahogany Furniture, Deforestation, and Slavery in Jane Eyre.” Critical Insights: Jane Eyre, Nov. 2014, pp. 23–49.

Gilbert, NORA. “Lilith on the Moors: The Brontë Sisters’ Runaway Women.” Victorian Review, vol. 42, no. 2, Fall 2016, pp. 273–289.

Han, Catherine Paula.  “The Myth of Anne Brontë.” Brontë Studies, vol. 42, no. 1, 2017, pp. 48-59.

Jacobs, N. M. “Gender and Layered Narrative in Wuthering Heights and The Tenant of Wildfel Hall,” Journal of Narrative Technique, vol. 16, no. 3, 1986, pp. 204-219.

Joshi, Priti. “Masculinity and Gossip in Anne Brontë’s Tenant.” SEL: Studies in English Literature, vol. 49, no. 4, Sept. 2009, pp. 907–924.

Kanwit, John Paul W. “‘I Have Often Wished in Vain for Another’s Judgment:’ Ideal Aesthetic Commentary and Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall.” Victorians: A Journal of Culture & Literature, no. 121, Spring 2012, pp. 84–102.

Langland, Elizabeth. “The Voicing of Feminine Desire in Anne Bronte’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall.” Gender and Discourse in Victorian Literature and Art, edited by Antony H. Harrison and Beverly Taylor, Northern Illinois U P, 1992, pp. 111-123.

Losano, Antonia. “The Professionalization of the Woman Artist in Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 58, no. 1, June 2003, pp. 1–41.

McMaster, Juliet. “ ‘Imbecile Laughter’ and ‘Desperate Earnest’ in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall.” MLQ: Modern Language Quarterly, vol. 43, no. 4, 1982, pp. 352–68.

O’Callaghan, Claire. “The Weirdest of the ‘Weird Sisters’.” History Today, vol. 68, no. 8, Aug. 2018, pp. 36–43.

O’Hara, John. “From Myth to Materiality: Critical Reception of Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre from the 1840s to the 2010s.” Critical Insights: Jane Eyre, Nov. 2014, pp. 50–63.

O’Toole, Tess. “Siblings and Suitors in the Narrative Architecture of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall.” SEL: Studies in English Literature, vol. 39, no. 4, 1999, p. 715-732.

Senf, Carol A. “The Tenant of Wildfell Hall: Narrative Silences and Questions of Gender.” College English, vol. 52, no. 4, 1990, pp. 446–56.

Simundich, Joel. “Tedious Reading: The Untimeliness of Anne Brontë.” Victorian Review, vol. 42, no. 2, Fall 2016, pp. 323-342.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, “Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism.” “Race,” Writing and Difference, edited by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., U of Chicago P, 1986, pp. 262-80. [On Jane Eyre, Wide Sargasso Sea, and Frankenstein]

Wagner, Tamara S. “Speculations on Inheritance and Anne Brontë’s Legacy for the Victorian Custody Novel.” Women’s Writing, vol. 14, no. 1, Mar. 2007, pp. 117–139.

Ward, Ian. “The Case of Helen Huntingdon.” Criticism, vol. 49, no. 2, Spring 2007, pp. 151–82.

Charlotte Bronte

Armstrong, Nancy. “One or several Jane Eyres?” Victorian Review, vol. 42, no. 2, Fall 2016, pp. 215-222.

Bodenheimer, Rosemarie. “Jane Eyre in Search of Her Story.” Papers on Language and Literature, vol. 16, 1989, pp. 387–402.

Bredar, Trish. “The Possibility of Taking a Walk: Jane Eyre’s Persistent Mobility.” Victorians: A Journal of Culture and Literature, vol. 132, 2017, pp. 116-129. [Cagle]

Chen, Chih- Ping. “‘Am I a Monster?’ Jane Eyre among the Shadows of Freaks.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 34, 2002, pp. 367–84.

Civale, Susan. ““Reader, I did not even have coffee with him”: Lorrie Moore’s Adaptation of Jane Eyre (1847) in A Gate at the Stairs (2009).” Studies in the Novel, vol. 48 no. 3, 2016, pp. 343-63. [Beckwith]

Dale, Peter Allan. “Charlotte Brontë’s ‘Tale Half- Told’: The Disruption of Narrative Structure in Jane Eyre.” Modern Language Quarterly, vol. 47, no. 2, 1986, pp. 108–29.

Laura E. Donaldson. “The Miranda Complex: Colonialism and the Question of Feminist Reading.” Diacritics, vol. 18, no. 3, 1988, pp. 65-77.

Gettelman, Debra. “‘Making Out’ Jane Eyre.” ELH, vol. 74, 2007, pp. 557–81.

Gezari, Janet. Charlotte Brontë and Defensive Conduct: The Author and the Body at Risk. U Pennsylvania P, 1992. 

Gilbert, Nora. “A Servitude of One’s Own: Isolation, Authorship, and the Nineteenth-Century British Governess.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 69 no. 4, 2015, 455-480.

Godfrey, Esther. “Jane Eyre, from Governess to Girl Bride.” Studies in English Literature 45.4 (2005): 853–71. Project Musedoi:10.1353/sel.2005.0037.

Farkas, Carol-Ann. “‘Beyond What Language Can Express’: Transcending the Limits of the Self in Jane Eyre.” Victorian Review 20.1 (1994): 49–69. JSTOR

Ford, Thomas H. “Punctuating History circa 1800: The Air of Jane Eyre.” Anthropocene Reading: Literary History in Geologic Times, edited by Tobias Menely and Jesse Oak Taylor, Pennsylvania State UP, 2017, pp. 78–95.

Franklin, J. Jeffrey. “The Merging of Spiritualities: Jane Eyre as Missionary of Love.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 49.4 (1995): 456–82.

Freedgood, Elaine. “Souvenirs of Sadism: Mahogany Furniture, Deforestation, and Slavery in Jane Eyre.” Jane Eyre, edited by Katie R. Peel, Salem, 2013, pp. 23–49.

Hoeveler, Diane and Deborah Denenholz Morse, eds. Time, Space, and Place in Charlotte Brontë. Routledge, 2017.

Hussey, Miciah. “Beside Myself: Fantasy, Form, and Authorship in Jane Eyre.” Victorians: A Journal of Culture and Literature, vol. 131, 2017, pp. 26-41. [Cagle]

Kaplan, Carla. “Girl Talk: Jane Eyre and the Romance of Women’s Narration.” NOVEL, vol. 30, no. 1, 1996, pp. 5-31.

Kreisel, Deanna. “The Madwoman on the Third Story: Jane Eyre in Space.” PMLA, vol. 131, no. 1, 2016, pp. 101-115. [Norman]

Lanser, Susan. “The Diachronization of Jane Eyre.” How to Do Things with Narrative: Cognitive and Diachronic Perspectives, edited by Jan Alber and Greta Olson, de Gruyter, 2018, pp. 109–124.

Lerner, Laurence. “Bertha and the Critics.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 44, 1989, pp. 273–300.

Locy, Sharon. “Travel and Space in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre.” Pacific Coast Philology, vol. 37, 2002, pp. 105–21.

London, Bette. “The Pleasures of Submission: Jane Eyre and the Production of the Text.” ELH, vol. 58, 1991, pp.

Newman, Beth. “Big Sister.” Victorian Review, vol. 42, no. 2, Fall 2016, pp. 258-265. [Special Issue: The Brontës and Critical Interventions in Victorian Studies]

Pizzo, Justine. “Atmospheric Exceptionalism in Jane Eyre: Charlotte Brontë’s Weather Wisdom.” PMLA, vol. 131, no. 1, 2016, pp. 84-100. [Norman]

Shuttleworth, Sally. Charlotte Brontë and Victorian Psychology. Cambridge UP, 1996.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism,” Critical Inquiry, vol. 1, no. 1, 1985, pp. 243-261.

Sternlieb, Lisa. “Jane Eyre: ‘Hazarding Confidences.’” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 53, no. 4, 1999, pp. 452–479.

Stevens, Kevin. “‘Eccentric Murmurs’: Noise, Voice, and Unreliable Narration in Jane Eyre.” Narrative, vol. 26, no. 2, May 2018, pp. 201-220.

Vicinus, Martha. “Dorothea or Jane?: the dilemmas of early feminist criticism.” Victorian Literature and Culture, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 155-65.

Werner, Winter Jade. “All in the Family? Missionaries, Marriage, and Universal Kinship in Jane Eyre.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 72, no. 4, March 2018, pp. 452-486.

Zonana, Joyce. ““The Sultan and the Slave: Feminist Orientalism and the Structures of Jane Eyre,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 18, no. 3, Spring 1993, pp. 592–617.

Dinah Mulock Craik

Bourrier, Karen. “Introduction: Rereading Dinah Mulock Craik.” Women’s Writing, vol. 20, no. 3, 2013, pp. 287-296. [This issue is dedicated to Craik’s work].

DeWees, Shelley. Not Just Jane: Rediscovering Seven Amazing Women Writers Who Transformed British Literature. Harper Perennial, 2016.

Foster, Shirley. Victorian Women’s Fiction: Marriage, Freedom, and the Individual. Routledge, 2012. [Chapters on C. Bronte, Gaskell, and Eliot, as well]

Kaplan, Cora. Victoriana: Histories, Fictions, Criticisms. Edinburgh UP, 2007. [Mentioned]

Lootens, Tricia. The Political Poetess: Victorian femininity, race, and the legacy of separate spheres. Princeton U P, 2017. [Primarily on Craik’s poetry]

Mascarenhas, Kiran. “The Half-Caste: A Half-Told Tale.”  Women’s Writing, vol. 20, no. 3, 2013, pp. 344-357.

Mitchell, Sally. “Afterword: Dinah Mulock Craik for the Twenty-First Century.” Women’s Writing, vol. 20, no. 3, 2013, pp. 404-412.

Moore, Rory. “A Mediated Intimacy: Dinah Mulock Craik and Celebrity Culture.” Women’s Writing, vol. 20, no. 3, Aug. 2013, pp. 387–403.

Showalter, Elaine. “Dinah Mulock Craik and the Tactics of Sentiment: A Case Study in Victorian Female Authorship.” Feminist Studies, vol. 2, no. 2–3, 1975, pp. 5–23.

Charles Dickens

Auyoung, Elaine. “Standing Outside Bleak House.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 68, no. 2, 2013, pp. 180–200.

Blain, Virginia. “Double Vision and the Double Standard in Bleak House: A Feminist Perspective.” Literature and History, vol. 11, no. 1, 1985, pp. 31-46.

Bodenheimer, Rosemarie. Knowing Dickens. Cornell UP, 2007.

Chappell, Patrick. “Paper Routes: Bleak House, Rubbish Theory, and the Character Economy of Realism.” ELH, vol. 80, no. 3, 2013, pp. 783–810.

Campbell, Elizabeth A. Fortune’s Wheel: Dickens and the Iconography of Women’s Time. Ohio UP, 2003.

Chase, Karen. A Global History of Literature and the Environment /. Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Daly, Suzanne. “Belligerent Instruments: The Documentary Violence of Bleak House.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 47 no. 1, 2015, pp. 20-42. [Beckwith]

Danahay, Martin A. “Housekeeping and Hegemony in Bleak House.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 23, no. 4, 1991, pp. 416–31.

Dever, Carolyn. Death and the Mother from Dickens to Freud: Victorian Fiction and the Anxiety of Origins. Cambridge UP, 1998.

Graver, Suzanne. “Writing in a ‘Womanly’ Way and the Double Vision of Bleak House.” Dickens Quarterly, vol. 4, no.1, 1987, pp. 3-15.

Jaffe, Audrey. Vanishing Points: Dickens, Narrative, and the Subject of Omniscience. U California P, 1991.

John, Juliet. Dickens’ Villains: Melodrama, Character, Popular Culture. Oxford UP, 2003.

Jordan, John O. Supposing ‘Bleak House’. U of Virginia P, 2011.

Keatley, Paula. “It’s About a Will’: Liberal Protestant Theology in Dickens’ Bleak House.Nineteenth-Century Contexts, vol. 39, no. 2, 2017, pp. 77-82. [Gallichio]

Madsen, Emily. “Phiz’s Black Doll: Integrating Text and Etching in Bleak House.” Victorian Literature and Culture, vol. 41, no. 3, 2013, pp. 411-33.

McBratney, John. ‘‘‘What Connexion Can There Be?’: Secrecy and Detection in Dickens’s Bleak House’’ in Victorian Secrecy: Economies of Knowledge and Concealment, edited by Albert D. Pionke and Denise Tischler Millstein, Routledge, 2010.

Michie, Helena. “‘Who is this in Pain?’: Scarring, Disfigurement, and Female Identity in Bleak House and Our Mutual Friend.” Novel, vol. 22, no. 1, 1989, pp. 199-212.

Newsom, Robert. Dickens on the Romantic Side of Familiar Things: ‘Bleak House’ and the Novel Tradition. Columbia UP, 1977.

Peltason, Timothy. “Esther’s Will.” ELH, vol. 59, no. 3, 1992, pp. 671-691.

Pittard, Christopher. “The Travelling Doll Wonder: Dickens, Secular Magic, and Bleak House.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 48 no. 3, 2016, pp. 279-300. [Beckwith]

Rajan, Supritha. “The Epistemology of Trust and Realist Effect in Charles Dickens’s Bleak House.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 71, no. 1 (June 2017): 64-106. [Stecher]

Robbins, Bruce. “Telescopic Philanthropy: Professionalism and Responsibility in Bleak House.” Nation and Narration, edited by Homi K. Bhabha, Routledge, 1990, pp. 213-30.

Schor, Hilary M. Dickens and the Daughter of the House. Cambridge UP, 1999.

Warhol, Robyn. “Describing the Unseen: The Visceral and Virtual Construction of Spaces in Bleak House.” Style: A Quarterly Journal of Aesthetics, Poetics, Stylistics, and Literary Criticism, vol. 48, no. 4, 2014, pp. 612–628.

Welsh, Alexander. Dickens Redressed: The Art of ‘Bleak House’ and ‘Hard Times’. New Haven: Yale UP, 2000.

Younisi, Ibrahim. “Two Themes in Bleak House (1962).” Translated by Sina Rahmani, PMLA, vol. 133, no. 2, 2018, pp. 437-442. [Norman]

Zwerdling, Alex. ‘‘Esther Summerson Rehabilitated.” PMLA, vol. 88, 1973, pp. 429-39.

George Eliot

Beer, Gillian. Darwin’s Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot, and Nineteenth-Century Fiction. Cambridge UP, 1983.

Booth, Alison, Greatness Engendered: George Eliot and Virginia Woolf. Cornell University Press, 1992.

David, Deirdre. Fictions of Resolution in Three Victorian Novels: North and South, Our Mutual Friend, Daniel Deronda. Columbia UP, 1981.

—. Intellectual Women and Victorian Patriarchy: Harriet Martineau, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, George Eliot. Macmillan, 1987.

Deguzman, Kathleen. “Natural Histories of Social Bodies: Rethinking Caribbean and Victorian Realisms.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 49 no. 4, 2017, pp. 518-37. [Beckwith]

Epstein Nord, Deborah. “George Eliot and John Everett Millais: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Realism.” Victorian Studies, vol. 60, no. 3, 2018, pp. 361-389. JSTOR, [Going]

Fessenbecker, Patrick. “Sympathy, Vocation, and Moral Deliberation in George Eliot.” ELH, vol. 85, no. 2, 2018, pp. 501-532. [Richardson]

Graver, Suzanne. George Eliot and Community: A Study in Social Theory and Fictional Form. University of California Press, 1984.

Hardy, Barbara. The Novels of George Eliot: A Study in Form. Athlone Press, 1959.

Herzog, Annabel. “Tale of Two Secrets. A Rereading of Daniel Deronda.” Differences, vol. 16, no. 2, 2005, pp. 37–60.

Knoepflmacher, U. C. George Eliot’s Early Novels: The Limits of Realism. U California Press, 1968.

Kravetz, Rachel. “The Radiant Tableaux of Daniel Deronda.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 73, no. 1, June 2018, pp. 68-93.

Lindhé, Anna. “The Paradox of Narrative Empathy and the Form of the Novel, or What George Eliot Knew.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 48 no. 1, 2016, pp. 19-42. [Beckwith]

Lovesey, Oliver. Postcolonial George Eliot. Palgrave, 2017.

Matus, Jill. “Historicizing Trauma: The Genealogy of Psychic Shock in Daniel Deronda.” Victorian Literature and Culture, vol. 36, no. 1, 2008, pp. 59–78.

Miller, Meredith. “Mystical Nationalism and the Rotten Heart of Empire: The Tangled Trope of Marriage in Daniel Deronda.” For Better, for Worse: Marriage in Victorian Novels by Women, edited by Carolyn Lambert and Marion Shaw, Routledge, 2018, pp. 83-100.

Shuttleworth, Sally, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Science: The Make-Believe of a Beginning. Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Scheinberg, Cynthia. “’The Beloved Ideas Made Flesh’: Daniel Deronda and Jewish Poetics.” ELH : English Literary History., vol. 77, no. 3, 2010, pp. 813–839.

Schor, Hilary M. “The Make-Believe of a Middle: On (Not) Knowing Where You Are in Daniel Deronda.” Narrative Middles: Navigating the Nineteenth-Century British Novel, edited by Caroline Levine and Mario Ortiz-Robles, Ohio State UP, 2011, pp. 47–74.

Thierauf, Doreen. “Tending to Old Stories: Daniel Deronda and Hysteria, Revisited.” Victorian Literature and Culture, vol. 46, no. 2, 2018, pp. 443–465.

Tromp, Marlene. “Gwendolen’s Madness.” Victorian Literature and Culture, vol. 28, no. 2. 2000, pp. 451–67.

Welsh, Alexander. George Eliot and Blackmail. Harvard University Press, 1985.

Wilt, Judith. “‘He Would Come Back’: The Fathers and Daughters in Daniel Deronda.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 42, no. 3, 1987, pp. 313–38.

Woloch, Alex. Daniel Deronda: Late Form, or After Middlemarch. A Companion to George Eliot, edited by Amanda Anderson and Harry E. Shaw, John Wiley and Sons, 2013.

Zimmerman, Bonnie. “Gwendolen Harleth and ‘The Girl of the Period.’” George Eliot: Centenary Essays and an Unpublished Fragment, edited by Anne Smith, Vision Press, 1980, pp. 196–217.

Elizabeth Gaskell

Bartlett, Jami. Object Lessons : The Novel as a Theory of Reference. Chicago ; London : The University of Chicago Press, 2016. [Section on Gaskell]

Bodenheimer, Rosemarie. The Politics of Story in Victorian Social Fiction. Cornell UP, 1988.

Brown, Pearl L. “From Elizabeth Gaskell’s Mary Barton to her North and South: Progress of Decline for Women?” Victorian Literature and Culture, vol. 28, no. 2, 2000, pp. 345-358.

D’Albertis, Deirdre. Dissembling Fictions: Elizabeth Gaskell and the Victorian Social Text. St. Martin’s Press, 1997.

David, Deirdre. Fictions of Resolution in Three Victorian Novels: North and South, Our Mutual Friend, Daniel Deronda. Columbia UP, 1981.

Dredge, Sarah. “Negotiating ‘A Woman’s Work’: Philanthropy to Social Science in Gaskell’s North and South.” Victorian Literature and Culture, vol. 40, no. 1, 2012, pp. 83-97.

Elliott, Dorice. “The Female Visitor and the Marriage of Classes in Gaskell’s North and South.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 49,  1994, pp. 21-49.

Hammond, Mary. “Wayward Orphans and Lonesome Places: The Regional Reception of Elizabeth Gaskell’s Mary Barton and North and South.” Victorian Studies, vol. 60, no. 3, 2016, pp. 390-411. JSTOR, [Going]

Harman, Barbara Leah. “In Promiscuous Company: Female Public Appearance in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South.” Victorian Studies,  vol. 31, no. 3, 1988, pp. 351-374.

Hayes, Laura. “The Body Plot: Self-Mastery and the Counter Narrative of Gaskell’s North and South.” Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 18, no. 1, Spring 2018, pp. 95–112.

Lewis, Michael D. “Democratic Networks and the Industrial Novel.” Victorian Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Social, Political, and Cultural Studies, vol. 55, no. 2, 2013, pp. 243–252.

Longmuir, Anne. “Consuming Subjects: Women and the Market in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts, vol. 34, no. 3, 2012, pp. 237-32.

MacLure, Jennifer. “Diagnosing Capitalism: Vital Economics and the Structure of Sympathy in Gaskell’s Industrial Novels.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts, vol. 38, no. 5, 2016, pp. 343-352. [Gallichio]

Mullen, Mary. “In Search of Shared Time: National Imaginings in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South.” Place and Progress in the Works of Elizabeth Gaskell, edited by Lesa Scholl et al., Ashgate, 2015, pp. 107–119.

Nash, Julie. “Ruled by a Powerful and Decided Nature”: Servants and Labor Relations in Gaskell.” Nineteenth-Century Feminisms, vol. 6, 2002, pp. 19-40

Pacious, Kathleen. “Intermental Thought and Mutual Focalization: Narrative Sympathy in North and South.” Style: A Quarterly Journal of Aesthetics, Poetics, Stylistics, and Literary Criticism, vol. 50, no. 1, 2016, pp. 80–98.

Parkins, Wendy. “Women, mobility and modernity in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South.” Women’s Studies International Forum,  vol. 27, 2004, pp. 507-519.

Puri, Tara. “Indian Objects, English Body: Utopian Yearnings in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South.” Journal of Victorian Culture, vol. 22, no. 1, 2017, pp. 1-23,

Reeder, Jessie. ‘Broken Bodies, Permeable Subjects: Rethinking Victorian Women’s “Agency” in Gaskell’s North and South’, NineteenthCentury Gender Studies, vol. 9, no. 3, 2013. EBSCOhost,

Reeds, Eleanor. “The Ethics of Risk in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South: The Role of Capital in an Industrial Romance.” Victorian Review: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Victorian Studies, vol. 40, no. 2, 2014, pp. 55–71.

Schor, Hilary M. Scheherazade in the Marketplace: Elizabeth Gaskell and the Victorian Novel. Oxford UP, 1992.

Scholl, Lesa, et al. Place and Progress in the Works of Elizabeth Gaskell. Ashgate, 2015.

Starr, Elizabeth. “‘A Great Engine for Good”: The Industry of Fiction in Elizabeth Gaskell’s Mary Barton and North and South.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 34, 2002, pp. 386-404.

Wilhelm, Lindsay. “‘Looking South’: Envisioning the European South in North and South.” Studies in the Novel 46, no. 4 (2014): 406–22.

Zlotnick, Susan. Women, Writing, and the Industrial Revolution. Johns Hopkins UP, 1998.

Amy Levy and New Woman Novels

Ardis, Ann. New Woman, New Novels. Macmillan, 1991.

Beckman, Linda Hunt. Amy Levy : Her Life and Letters.  Ohio UP, 2000.

Cameron, S. Brooke and Danielle Bird, “Sisterly Bonds and Rewriting Urban Gendered Spheres in Amy Levy’s The Romance of a Shop.” Victorian Review, vol. 40, no. 1, Spring 2014, pp. 77–96.

Cunningham, Gail. The New Woman and the Victorian Novel. Macmillan, 1978.

Evans, Elizabeth F. “‘We Are Photographers, Not Mountebanks!’: Spectacle, Commercial Space, and the New Public Woman.” Amy Levy: Critical Essays, edited by Naomi Hetherington et al., Ohio UP, 2010, pp. 25–46.

Goody, Alex. “Passing in the City: The Liminal Spaces of Amy Levy’s Late Work.” Amy Levy: Critical Essays, edited by Naomi Hetherington and Nadia Valman, Ohio UP, 2010, pp. 157–79.

Green, Laura Morgan. Educating Women: Cultural Conflict and Victorian Literature. Ohio University Press, 2001.

Heilmann, Ann. New Woman Fiction : Women Writing First-Wave Feminism. Hampshire [Engand] : Macmillan Press ; New York : St. Martin’s Press, 2000

Kramp, Michael. “Exposing Visual Discipline: Amy Levy’s Romance of a Shop, the Decay of Paternalistic Masculinity, and the Powers of Female Sight.” Victorians Institute Journal, vol. 40, Jan. 2012, pp. 111–143.

Pykett, Lyn. The ‘Improper Feminine’: The Women’s Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. Routledge, 1992.

Schaffer, Talia. Literature and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. Longman, 2007.

Wanczyk, David. “Framing Gertrude: Photographic Narration and the Subjectivity of the Artist-Observer in Levy’s the Romance of a Shop.” Victorian Literature & Culture, vol. 43, no. 1, Mar. 2015, pp. 131–148.

Amelia Opie

None of the works address Valentine’s Eve specifically; see Jane Spencer’s and Gary Kelly’s work on Romantic fiction more generally; does not include scholarship on poetry or other works of fiction

Bray, Joe. “The Language of Portraiture in the Early Nineteenth-Century Novel: A Study in Opie and Austen.” Women’s Writing, vol. 23, no. 1, Feb. 2016, pp. 53-67.

Cosgrave, Isabelle. “Untrustworthy Reproductions and Doctored Archives: Undoing the Sins of a Victorian Biographer.” The Boundaries of the Literary Archive: Reclamation and Representation, Carrie (ed.) Smith and Lisa (ed. and introd.) Stead, Ashgate, 2013, pp. 61-74.

Eberle, Roxanne. “Amelia and John Opie: Conjugal Sociability and Romanticism’s Professional Arts.” Studies in Romanticism, vol. 53, no. 3, 2014, pp. 319-341.

—. Charity and Transgression in Women’s Writing, 1792-1897: Interrupting the Harlot’s Progress. Palgrave, 2002.

Guest, Harriet. Unbounded Attachment: Sentiment and Politics in the Age of the French Revolution. Oxford University Press, 2013.

Johnson, Claudia L. Jane Austen: Women, Politics, and the Novel. U of Chicago P, 1988. [See chapter on “The Novel of Crisis.” ]

Kelly, Gary. “Discharging Debts: The Moral Economy of Amelia Opie’s Fiction.” Wordsworth Circle, vol. 11, 1980, pp. 198-203.

—.  Women, writing and revolution. Clarendon Press, 1993.

King, Shelley and John B. Pierce. The Amelia Alderson Opie Archive. Queen’s U, 2007. Accessed 5 February 2019.

Mandal, Anthony.  Jane Austen and the Popular Novel: The Determined Author. Palgrave, 2007.

Ty, Eleanor. Empowering the Feminine: The Narratives of Mary Robinson, Jane West, and Amelia Opie, 1796-1812 Toronto, ON: U of Toronto P, 1998.

Wallace, Miriam L. “Women Write Back: Alternative Legal Rhetorics in Inchbald, Wollstonecraft and Opie.” Women’s Writing, vol. 23, no. 1, Feb. 2016, pp. 68-86.

Sir Walter Scott

Adams, Maeve. “‘The Force of My Narrative’: Persuasion, Nation, and Paratext in Walter Scott’s Early Waverley Novels.” ELH, vol. 82, no. 3, 2015, pp. 937–967.

Alexander, J. H. Walter Scott’s Books: Reading the Waverley Novels. Routledge, 2017.

Bragg, Tom. “Scott’s Elementals: Vanishing Points between Space and Narrative in the Waverley Novels.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 42, no. 3, 2010, pp. 205–226.

Buzard, James. “Translation and Tourism: Scott’s Waverley and the Rendering of Culture” Yale Journal of Criticism vol. 8, no. 2, 1995, pp. 31-59.

Duncan, Ian. Scott’s Shadow: the Novel in Romantic Edinburgh. Princeton University Press, 2007.

Ewers, Chris. “Roads as Regions, Networks and Flows: Waverley and the ‘Periphery’ of Romance.” Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, vol. 37, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 97–112.

Favret, Mary. War at a Distance: Romanticism and the Making of Modern Wartime. Princeton University Press, 2010.

Ferris, Ina. The Achievement of Literary Authority: Gender, History, and the Waverley Novels. Cornell UP, 1991.

—. “‘Before Our Eyes’: Romantic Historical Fiction and the Apparitions of Reading.” Representations, vol. 121, 2013, pp. 60–84.

—.“Re-Positioning the Novel: Waverley and the Gender of Fiction.” Studies in Romanticism, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1989, pp. 291-301. JSTOR, 25600777. [Phillips]

Gamer, Michael. “Waverley and the Object of (Literary) History.” Modern Language Quarterly: A Journal of Literary History, vol. 70, no. 4, Dec. 2009, pp. 495–525.

Goode, Mike. “Dryasdust Antiquarianism and Soppy Masculinity: The Waverley Novels and the Gender of History.” Representations, vol. 82, 2003, pp. 52–86.

Gottlieb, Evan. Feeling British: Sympathy and National Identity in Scottish and English Writing, 1707-1832. Bucknell UP, 2007.

—. Walter Scott and Contemporary Theory. Bloomsbury, 2013.

Howard, Susan Kubica. “Narrative Surrogacy in Edgeworth’s and Scott’s Nationalist Novels.” The Ways of Fiction: New Essays on the Literary Cultures of the Eighteenth Century, edited by Nicholas J. Crowe, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018, pp. 86–107.

Jarrells, Anthony. “Bloodless Revolution and the Form of the Novel.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction, vol. 37, no. 1–2, 2003, pp. 24–44.

Jones, Catherine. Literary Memory: Scott’s Waverley Novels and the Psychology of Narrative. Bucknell UP; Associated UP, 2003.

Lumsden, Alison. Walter Scott and the Limits of Language. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2010.

Manning, Susan. “Walter Scott (1771-1832): The Historical Novel.” The Cambridge Companion to European Novelists, edited by Michael Bell, Cambridge UP, 2012, pp. 140–158.

Mayer, Robert. Walter Scott and Fame : Authors and Readers in the Romantic Age. Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press, 2017.

Maxwell, Richard. “Inundations of Time: A Definition of Scott’s Originality.” ELH, vol. 68, no. 2, 2001, pp. 419–68.

Millgate, Jane. Walter Scott: the making of a novelist. U of Toronto P, 1984.

McLean, Thomas. “Nobody’s Argument: Jane Porter and the Historical Novel.” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, 2007, pp. 88–103.

Rigney, Ann. The Afterlives of Walter Scott : Memory on the Move. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2012.

Robertson, Fiona. Legitimate Histories: Scott, Gothic, and the Authorities of Fiction. Clarendon, 1994.

Southerland, John. The Life of Walter Scott: A Critical Biography. Blackwell, 1995.

Trumpener, Katie. Bardic Nationalism: The Romantic Novel and the British Empire. Princeton UP, 1997.

Tullock, Graham. The Language of Sir Walter Scott. Deutsch, 1980.

Wallace, Tara Ghoshal. “The Elephant’s Foot and the British Mouth: Walter Scott on Imperial Rhetoric.” European Romantic Review, vol. 13, no. 3, 2002, pp. 311-24.

Welsh, Alexander. The Hero of the Waverley Novels: with new essays on Scott. Princeton UP, 1992.

Wilt, Judith. Secret Leaves: the Novels of Sir Walter Scott. U of Chicago P, 1985.

William Thackeray

Camus, Marianne. “Waterloo in Vanity Fair or the Art of Not Representing War.” Cahiers Victorians et Edouardiens, vol. 66, 2007, pp. 451–66.

Colby, Robert A. Thackeray’s Canvass of Humanity: An Author and His Public. Ohio State UP, 1979.

Cole, Sarah Rose. “The Aristocrat in the Mirror: Male Vanity and Bourgeois Desire in William Makepeace Thackeray’s Vanity Fair.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 61, no. 2, 2006, pp. 137–70.

DiBattista, Maria. “The Triumph of Clytemnestra: The Charades in Vanity Fair.” PMLA, vol. 95, no. 5, October 1980, pp. 827–37.

Hammond, Mary. “Thackeray’s Waterloo: History and War in Vanity Fair.” Literature and History, vol. 11, no. 2, Fall 2002, pp. 19–38.

Kaye, Richard A. “A Good Woman on Five Thousand Pounds: Jane Eyre, Vanity Fair, and Literary Rivalry.” Studies in English Literature, vol. 35, no. 4, 1995, pp. 723–39.

Lindner, Christopher. “Thackeray’s Gourmand: Carnivals of Consumption in Vanity Fair.” Modern Philology, vol. 99, no. 4, 2002, pp. 564–81.

Litvak, Joseph. “Kiss Me, Stupid: Sophistication, Sexuality, and Vanity Fair.” Novel, vol. 29, no. 2, Winter 1996, pp. 223–42.

McAdams, Ruth M. “Clothing Napoleonic History in Vanity Fair and The Trumpet-Major.” Victorian Studies, vol. 60, no. 1, 2017, pp. 9-28. JSTOR, [Going]

Richieri Griffin, Cristina. “Experiencing History and Encountering Fiction in Vanity Fair.” Victorian Studies, vol. 58, no. 3, 2016, pp. 412–435. JSTOR, [Going]

Sutherland, John. Thackeray at Work. Athlone, 1974.

Welsh, Alexander, ed. Thackeray: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice-Hall, 1968.

Wolff, Cynthia G. “Who Is the Narrator of Vanity Fair and Where Is He Standing?” College Literature, vol. 1, no. 3, Fall 1974, pp. 190–203.

John Thelwall

Does not include critical work on poetry, oratory, or elocution

Claeys, Gregory. The politics of English Jacobinism: writings of John Thelwall. Pennsylvania State P, 1995.

James, Felicity James, Charles Lamb, Coleridge and Wordsworth: Reading Friendship in the 1790s. Palgrave, 2008.

Kitson, Peter J. “John Thelwall in Saint Domingue: Race, Slavery, and Revolution in The Daughter of Adoption: A Tale of Modern Times (1801).”Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism, vol. 16, no. 2, 2010, pp. 120–138.

—. “E Lizabeth B Ohls, Romantic Literature and Postcolonial Studies; J Ohn T Helwall, The Daughter of Adoption: A Tale of Modern Times; M Arcus R Ainsford, An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti.” Romanticism, vol. 22, no. 3, Oct. 2016, pp. 360–364.

Poole, Steve. John Thelwall : Radical Romantic and Acquitted Felon. London : Pickering & Chatto, 2009.

Scrivener, Michael. Seditious Allegories: John Thelwall and Jacobin Writing. Penn State UP, 2001.

Solomonescu, Yasmin. John Thelwall and the Materialist Imagination. Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

—. “Mute Records and Blank Legends: John Thelwall’s ‘Paternal Tears.’” Romanticism 16 (2019): 152-63.

Thompson, Judith Thompson. “Citizen Juan Thelwall: In the Footsteps of a Free-Range Radical.” Studies in Romanticism 48 (2009): 67-100.

—. John Thelwall in the Wordsworth Circle: The Silenced Partner. (Palgrave, 2012)